Persuasion - Key Terms

 

Ethos – The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as credibility.

Credibility             

            – The audience’s perception of how believable a speaker is. The two major factors influencing a speaker’s credibility are competence and character.

 

Initial credibility            

            – The credibility of a speaker before she or he starts to speak.

 

Derived credibility        

            – The credibility of a speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech.

 

Terminal credibility      

            – The credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech.

 

Creating common ground       

            – A technique in which a speaker connects himself or herself with the values, attitudes, or experiences of the audience.

 

 

 

 

 

Logos   – The name used by Aristotle for the logical appeal of a speaker. The two major elements of logos are evidence and reasoning.

 

EVIDENCE

            – Supporting materials used to prove or disprove something.

 

REASONING        

            – The process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence.

 

•Reasoning from specific instances (Inductive)           

            – Reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion.

 

Hasty generalization     

            – An error in reasoning from specific instances, in which a speaker jumps to a general conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence.

 

•Reasoning from principle   (Deductive)

            – Reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion.

 

•Causal reasoning          

            – Reasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects.

 

False cause  

            – An error in causal reasoning in which a speaker mistakenly assumes that because one event follows another, the first event is the cause of the second. This error is often known by its Latin name, post hoc, meaning "after this, therefore because of this."

 

•Analogical reasoning 

            – Reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is also true for the second.

 

Invalid analogy    

            – An analogy in which the two cases being compared is not essentially alike.

 

Fallacy        

            – An error in reasoning.

 

Red herring          

            – A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion.

 

Ad hominem          

            – A fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute.

 

Either-or     

            – A fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist.

Bandwagon           

            – A fallacy, which assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable

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Slippery slope      

            – A fallacy, which assumes that taking a first step, will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented.

 

Pathos – The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as emotional appeal.

 

Fear

 

Compassion

 

Pride

 

Anger

 

Guilt

 

Reverence

 

            Use Emotional Language.

 

            Use Vivid Examples.

 

            Speak with Sincerity and Conviction.